Grades and Reports Should Be Based on Clearly Specified Learning Goals and Performance Standards.
All 9th grade, 1st semester English students will be graded on the same standard/targets.
In most cases, teachers will be using scores from multiple assessments to measure the learning of a student. This practice provides multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate achievement toward learning targets. Therefore teachers have no need to use zeros.
Think about this...
Zeros have such a powerfully negative impact on the average that they can have a debilitating effect on student motivation (effort optimism). Including zeros also fails to accurately communicate what students really know and can demonstrate.
Does the use of zeros when averaging a grade tell us what a student has learned or can do?
Accurate grades are based on the most consistent evidence...
We look at the pattern of achievement, including trends, not the average of the data. This means we focus on the mode and the most recent scores, not the mean (averages).